Table of Contents

  1. Design
  2. Design Verification
  3. Project Variation
  4. References

1. Design


This section covers the activities to ensure that the design output meets the design input requirements and that the design output has been developed against known acceptance criteria, conforms to appropriate regulatory and contractual requirements, and identifies the functional characteristics of the product that relate to safety and performance. In this respect the word "design" covers all process, project and specialist engineering and design activities.


The planning of engineering activities for a project may be divided into the following phases, which could coincide:
  • the concept phase
  • basic engineering
  • detailed engineering and design
For each phase, the scope of activities and deliverables are defined, with necessary milestones for each discipline, to achieve the scheduled objectives.

Activity Assignment

Qualified personnel equipped with adequate resources and facilities shall be assigned to the design and verification activities.

The quality of design shall be assured by experienced personnel.

The work shall be governed by Company procedures and standards and supported by the computerized facilities that may all be adapted or extended to satisfy the project requirements.

Company's comprehensive library contains reference books and journals together with the current copies of national and international codes and standards that shall be considered for the work.

The Departments maintain an index of technical/engineering computer programs.


For each project the administrative and technical interfaces shall be established and formalized to ensure a smooth flow of information and to ensure that all necessary specialists are involved in the appropriate activities.

Due consideration shall be given to:

  • possible overlaps in the work of various disciplines
  • possible split of work between various office locations;
  • involvement of other disciplines to advise on technical and practical aspects.

Concept Phase

The concept phase, in Company, may start with the receipt of the enquiry from the client and with the preparation of the proposal.

The main purposes of this phase are:

  • to define outline conditions and objectives.
  • to work out a clear assignment of tasks
  • to establish the basic planning and interfaces.
The following example of measures may be included during this phase by the Project Manager in collaboration with all Departments based on available information and client's requirements.
  • establish/confirm the scope of services, deliveries and guarantee.
  • establish/confirm criteria to be applied for optimizing the plant or sections of the plant.
  • clarify client's requirements.
  • establish/confirm the degree of reliability, availability and service life to be aimed for.
  • draw up basic schedules and define essential milestones.
  • define the Basic Design Data.
  • establish raw materials/feed stocks and products for the plant.
  • establish the required loadings and partial loadings.
  • establish local conditions such as location, production facilities, environmental conditions, etc.
  • clarify laws and official regulations to be observed, and permits to be obtained.
  • select and establish the codes, norms/procedures and standards to be applied.
  • define guidelines regulating the activities for the project. These describe the tests, reviews and approvals required by the client and or local authorities, the method of identifying and administering documents, the exchange of information, as well as the documentation of decisions and amendments.
  • translate the assignment into construction regulations, design specifications and testing and inspection regulations. These documents are drawn up in the agreed form so that all those involved in the project are clearly and reliably informed.

Basic Engineering

The aim of the basic engineering phase may include:
  • define requirements for all plant components, taking into account all possible cases.
  • define the installation concept and provide sufficient details of construction requirements.
The following measures shall, as far as necessary, be taken to achieve the above:
  • draw up flow diagrams.
  • establish the material and heat balances.
  • carrying out an upset operational condition analysis, resulting on the one hand in safety equipment, and on the other in design data (pressure, temperature) and additional safety require­ments.
  • simulate the various cases for the process chosen and confirm the types and number of pieces of equipment.
  • determine the forces/stresses on individual pieces of equipment and/or their parts and select/define/design the equipment as appropriate and taking due account of optimum economics.
  • selection of materials to be used for the individual components shall be based on the design data, corrosion, erosion and any special condition.
  • prepare equipment and material specifications.
  • draw any necessary installation plans considering feasibility, construction and safety requirements.
The proper implementation of the above activities shall be in accordance with Company's procedures and guidelines.

Detailed Engineering and Design

The object of the detailed engineering phase is to translate the information defined in the basic engineering phase into ordering specifications, drawings, calculations and parts lists to enable individual components to be procured, assembled and installed.

Detailed Engineering activities may include:

  • drawing up the technical documents e.g.:
  • specifications
  • requisitions
  • design drawings and calculations
  • obtaining authorizations if necessary from the client and authorities.
  • technical evaluation of bids.
  • reviewing the manufacturer's documents and releasing for production.
A high standard of detail engineering shall be achieved by the following measures:
  • standardization of documentation for transferring information, i.e. form, content and distribution are defined.
  • administration of documents to ensure that a general review of the number of documents produced and their status and distribution is available at all times.
  • clearly regulated release procedures ensuring that the applica­bility of a document is obvious. This also applies to documents that cannot be in their final form because the planning is in stages. Here it is necessary to clearly identify those parts of the contents that are valid or to specifically describe the purpose of the information.
  • limiting the number of revisions, to reduce adverse effects on quality. In case revisions are unavoidable, they should be followed through efficiently.
  • localization of employees from the various departments in one area, as far as possible/necessary, with shared interfaces.
  • regular coordination discussions under the chairmanship of the Project Manager.
  • planned intermediate checks carried out in good time to ensure that all requirements are being met.
  • checking and approving of technical documents required for manufacture and installation. This does not apply to sub­contractors manufacturing documents.


2. Design Verification


Periodic review of drawings and models, along with rapid dissemination of information to all disciplines, assures that all are current with design development and progress.

Each discipline shall have established the necessary quality control, or checking procedures and standards for controlling the quality of their work. These activities shall be performed by individuals not directly responsible for the production of the documents being checked.

The group manager of each discipline shall conduct periodic independent reviews of the performance of personnel assigned to the task force through established review procedures.

Discipline Checks

Prior to an external issue, formal documents shall be independently checked by a person, within the specialist discipline, whose experience/qualifications are similar to or greater/higher than those of the originator in accordance with the procedure and standards.

Inter-Discipline Checks

Inter-discipline checks shall be initiated for major documents in case the expertise of other specialists may contribute to the quality of the document.

These checks may be invited by either issuing a comment print routed through the disciplines or by issuing a separate comment print to each discipline.

Design Reviews

A design review is a formal meeting performed by a multi-discipline review team to examine aspects of the design, such as but not limited to:
  • safety
  • environment
  • constructability
  • operability
  • maintainability
  • technical integrity
  • contractual requirements

Design reviews can be held as e.g. a meeting or 3D model reviews.

Dependent on the nature and scope of a project, the types of design reviews may vary. They may range from reviews encompassing all technical documents and safety studies to reviews limited to certain key documents only, such as P&ID's, plot layouts and process design bases.

The client should be given the opportunity to attend any such review meetings.

All comments from such meetings shall be recorded either in a minutes of meeting or a signed and marked-up comment print of the reviewed document coupled to a list of attendees.

All comments/corrections from these reviews shall be incorporated in the document(s) prior to the checking and issuing formally for client's comments.

Project Quality Assurance

At the start of a project, the Manager of Quality Assurance, in coordination with all operational Department Managers, shall determine the schedule and extent of the checks and reviews required to be executed by the Department and Group Managers, independent of the task-force quality activities.

For these project audits the appropriate procedures and guides shall be used and the reports submitted accordingly. Audit checklists may be used to enhance a structured audit approach.

Design Validation

If Company acts as process licensor, process performance guarantees and the general test run procedure shall be defined and results of the tests recorded.

If information/correspondence is received from the client (after the plant has been started-up) that the plant satisfied all users' needs and/or requirements, that information will be filed by the Contracts Department. Technical information is kept in the Process Department files.

If contractually required, Company will perform any test runs.


3. Project Variation


For each project, procedures shall be established and implemented for the identification, documentation and appropriate review and approval of changes and modifications.


The following minimum requirements shall be covered by these procedures:
  • variations to the design input affecting the design output are to be reported to the Project Manager. Only variations that have been approved by the Project Manager shall be included in the design process.
  • a requirement to change documents that have been "certified" for purchase, fabrication or construction shall be reported immediately to the Project Manager. Only after his approval shall the involved documents, that clearly reflect the approved changes, be re-issued.
  • the Project Manager decides whether to inform the originator and any other party involved about potential variations and instruct whether or not work is to be stopped.
  • upon rejection of a variation, the Project Manager shall inform the originator and any parties involved.
  • records of agreed variation shall be maintained, as a minimum.


4. References

Document Number Title
CM-MA-121 Control of Computer Programs Affected by Updates of Codes/Norms/Standards
CM-PE-002 Preparation of EFD’s and Related Documents
CM-PE-101 Identification and Verification of Project References
CM-PE-306 Multi-Discipline Design Reviews
CM-PE-308 Basic Design Data
CM-PE-313 Control of Project Variations
CM-PE-404 Engineering Data Transfer Between Process Department and Control Systems Department
CM-PE-500 Preparation and Handling of Requisitions
CM-PE-505 Design Models
CM-PE-506 Model Review
CM-PE-801 Constructability
BN-EP-012 Preparation and Control of Engineering Calculations
BN-EP-013 Establishing/Coding and Control of “Loans” of Department and Group References
BN-EP-304 Work Division Between Control Systems and Electrical Groups
BN-EP-326 Creation of CAD Plotplans, 3D PDS Piping Models, GA’s Isometrics and MTO
BN-PS-001 Design Basis
BN-W-UE201 Compliance with Local Applicable Laws and Regulations
BN-DG-UD001 Checking of Flow Diagrams and Line Designation Tables
BN-DG-UD002 Checking of Plotplans and Plant Layouts