### Strike-out of Cone

To calculate the profile and the outside dimension of a cone from a flat plate. A cone for a column for example is usually first cut out a flat plate and then rolled to shape.

A design calculation has to be done to determine the actual dimensions of the strike-out from the flat plate. Some extra margins (allowances) can be added to the ends of the cone to be able to prepare the ends (for example by grinding) for welding purposes. Below figure indicates the meaning of the required dimensions necessary to execute the design calculation.

Go to engineering tool >

Heads are formed steel plates for pressure vessels and heat exchangers. The heads are usually found at the ends of an equipment, top or bottom for vertical vessels and left right for horizontal vessels. There are only a few shapes used for the heads that have proven to be useful. If the head is cut in half over the diameter of the head, the shapes follow more or less an ellipse, see also the figure below.

The strength calculation of heads are one of the frequently performed calculations since most equipment consist of one or two of them. The Head Thickness page is an example page to calculate the wall thickness of heads, ellipsoidal, torispherical, kloepper and korbbogen heads. Calculation codes are ASME, Dutch Rules and the EN Euronorm.

Below figure gives the an indication of the dimensions used in the calculations. The calculation also require the user to enter a stress value depending the material. The calculation page has a link to a material property page, but the values on the material pages are for reference only and are not to be used in actual calculations.

Go to engineering tool >

### Shell Thickness Calculation

The body of static equipment under pressure is in many cases a cylindrical shape. More complex equipment such as destilation columns can also have on or more conical part. LPG tanks however have usually a spherical body.

The Shell Thickness calculation page is to calculate the wall thickness of a cylinder, cone and sphere under pressure without holes. The calculation does not take into account the extra stress around holes for nozzles and is therefore a basic strength calculation. Calculation codes are ASME, Dutch Rules and the EN Euronorm.

Below figure gives the an indication of the dimensions used in the calculations. The calculation also require the user to enter a stress value depending the material. The calculation page has a link to a material property page, but the values on the material pages are for reference only and are not to be used in actual calculations.

Go to engineering tool >

### Tube Sheet Layout

Shell and tube heat exchangers are complex and more expensive than ordinary pressure vessels. Also the strength calculation is more difficult. Part of the design process includes the determination of the amount of tubes to be used in the heat exchanger. The number and length of the tubes create the area thru which the heat is transferred from one process medium to the other. The outside of the shell and tube heat exchanger is mostly a cylindrical form which make the calculation by hand for the amount of tubes difficult. The number of tubes and the dimensions are required to execute the calculation for the tube sheet.

The Tube Sheet Lay-out page facilitates the calculation of the amount of tubes. The calculation can be done for four (4) pitch patterns (how the tubes are laid out) and for ten (10) types of passes (tube compartments).

Go to engineering tool >

### Flange Dimensions

Flanges are used on equipment for the nozzles and in piping systems. The flanges are bolted together with a gasket in between to prevent leackage. The dimensions of flanges in piping systems and also the smaller flanges on equipment are standardized. Equipment such as pressure vessels can also have so-called body flanges. These flanges are specially made for the diameter of the equipment and are designed and calculated individually.

Go to engineering tool >

### Pipe Dimensions

Pipes are standard components used in process plants. The dimensions (wall thickness) are standardized. The below figure gives the legend for the dimensions used on the Pipe Dimension page.

Go to engineering tool >

### Material Properties

Material properties are necessary for the strength calculations of components and equipment in the process industry. The material properies page on this website is only for reference and order of magnitude when using the head and shell calculation pages.

The data for the material database comes from an out-of-date listing of materials and is for demonstration purposes only. The figures from the material properties pages can not be used for actual strength calculations.

Go to engineering tool >

### PED Classification

This page provides a starting point when dealing with equipment or piping according the Pressure Equipment Directive. The first step is usually to determine the classification category of the equipment or piping. This classification defines the further requirements such as material certificates, design method and calculations, testing and documentation requirements.

PED classification procedure in short

• Provide a tag (or equipment) number and optionally a name to identify the subject item
• Indicate the type of equipment which will define one of the three table groups (1,2,3,4 or 5 or 6,7,8,9)
• Only for the pressure accessory it is required to indicate the assessment background (volume or nominal size of pipe)
• Select the fluid state and group, this will define the applicable table
• Enter the maximum pressure, maximum temperature (is sometimes required for example generators), the volume (for equipment and accessories) or the nominal diameter DN (for piping and accessories)
• The additional information is required to be selected where applicable to determine possible exceptions to the classification tables

### Tank Fluid Volume

Use this tool to calculate the volume of a horizontal drum with a measured liquid level.

Go to engineering tool >